In Archimedes Palimpsest Archimedes presents ideas that are close to calculus. The history of this manuscript is quite interesting (discovered essentially only in the 20th century):

In the 12th century the original Archimedes codex was unbound, scraped and washed, along with at least six other parchment manuscripts, including one with works of Hypereides. The parchment leaves had been folded in half and reused for a Christian liturgical text of 177 pages.

History and its sense of humor…

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